Démocratie Collaborative, Késako ?

L’ère de la décision politique systématiquement descendante est pour nous maintenant révolue. La démocratie participative fleurit dans tous les programmes politiques quels qu’ils soient.

Voici nos réflexions sur cet enjeu.

Suffrage Universel

Les élections au suffrage universel modernes sont naturelles mais vivent des taux de participation variables selon le scrutin (présidentiel, législatif ou local). La représentativité est également très variable selon le type d’élection.

Et aux élections municipales ?

Les élections municipales se déroulent avec scrutin proportionnel de liste à deux tours avec prime accordée à la liste arrivée en tête.

La liste victorieuse se voit attribuer la moitié des sièges à pourvoir. L’autre moitié est répartie à la proportionnelle entre l’ensemble des listes ayant obtenu un minimum de 5 % des suffrages exprimés.

De fait le conseil municipal est sur-représentatif des votes majoritaires de la population.

De plus il est important de préciser que le scrutin municipal est également communautaire.

Quel défauts ?

Ce système a des avantages comme notamment assurer le fonctionnement stable pour la plupart des affaires courantes.

Malheureusement l’on peut noter que dans le cas de projets importants pour la commune, la décision peut rester le fait, si ce n’est du prince, celui d’un tout petit groupe d’élus.

Quelque soit le niveau où se situe la décision politique de ce type, l’on se rend rapidement compte qu’elle est remise en cause, de manière injustifiée parfois, mais bien souvent tout de même.

Le ressentiment qui en ressort est nocif pour le bien vivre ensemble.

Participatif ou Collaboratif ?

La démocratie participative a été vidée de son sens. Elle est bien souvent désormais une coquille vide dans laquelle au mieux l’on consulte quelques volontaires ou bien au pire l’on organise une réunion de quartier avec deux monologues (élus et habitants).

La collaboration signifie que face à un sujet qui concerne la communauté, l’analyse du sujet, les solutions possibles pour le traiter, le choix final et le calendrier de travail sont conduits avec la population le plus possible.

Cette co-construction des solutions a une vertu majeure : elle permet d’amener des consensus là où l’unanimité n’existe pas.

Alors comment faire ?

Cette démarche collaborative a déjà été mise en œuvre dans différentes organisations et notamment des communes de taille comparable à celle de Questembert.

En substance, cela impliquera les citoyens dès que possible dans les dossiers importants des quartiers, villages ou pour la commune entière.

Nous développerons ce sujet dans nos prochaines prises de parole.

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